Online Master’s in Project Management

An Education in Getting Things Done

As the saying goes, time is money. For that reason, project managers have become integral to business success. According to the Project Management Institute (PMI), organizations that are high performers in project management stay on time and budget for more than 80 percent of their projects. They also waste 13 times less money than organizations with poor project performance, and meet their business goals 2.5 times more often.

With the high demand for project managers and a talent gap expected in the coming years, this may be the perfect time to pursue a degree. If you already have a job and/or family, an online project management master’s degree may accommodate your schedule while positioning you for a career in this dynamic field.

This guide offers an inside look at the master’s in project management online degree. You’ll learn what these degrees entail, what job prospects are expected, and how much money you could earn. Keep reading to learn more about the degree that will teach you how to manage business projects like a pro.

Top Online Master's in Project Management

Earning an online master’s in project management degree is easier than ever thanks to the increasing number of schools offering quality, convenient programs. As schools have seen the need for online and distance education programs grow, the number of courses and programs has increased to fill that need, allowing individuals with otherwise too busy lives the opportunity to obtain their advanced degrees. The colleges and universities listed below represent the best of the best when it comes to their online master’s in project management programs.


Southern New Hampshire University's master's in project management program allows students to take classes 100% online, all on-campus or in a hybrid format. Classes are given in 10-week terms and the program can be completed in 15 months if students take two classes each term. The program includes real-world applications of project management concepts, including guest lectures and information on projects from high-tech companies.

Professors bring practical experience to their instruction, with years of professional project management and operations experience. Courses introduce topics relevant to project management including supply chain, logistics, quality management and management science. Students will also learn to use management software such as Oracle Crystal Ball for Simulation and Microsoft Project.

  • International MBA in Accounting
  • International MBA in Athletic Administration
  • International MBA in Corporate Social Responsibility

Through the university's College of Business, MSU offers an online MBA with a concentration in project management. This 33-credit hour program is designed specifically for engineering and other technical students who wish to take on a managerial role. Students will complete 24 hours of MBA coursework and nine hours of industrial engineering courses relating to project management. Offered fully online, curricula covers financial reporting, leading for change management, risk assessment, and strategic marketing. Admission into this program is on a rolling basis.

  • MBA
  • MBA in Project Management
  • MS in Project Management

The University of Wisconsin's eCampus offers an online master's program in project management that can be completed in a 100% virtual environment. No campus visits are required and coursework can be completed asynchronously - at any time and day of the student's choosing.

The program, which ranges from 30-36 credits, is designed both for working project managers who wish to further their career, and young professionals or career changers who are interested in pursuing project management. Prospective students who are Project Management Professionals (PMP) may be able to earn some credits for their professional experience and enter the program in an advanced standing.

  • MBA (UW MBA Consortium)
  • MBA (UW Whitewater)
  • MS in Integrated Supply Chain Management (UW Platteville)

Missouri State University's online master's program in project management can prepare students to work in a variety of disciplines, including the technical, business, management, healthcare, financial and service arenas. Students in the program complete a series of required courses on project management basics, including cost analysis, project leadership, product control systems and product design and development. There are also many electives available for students who wish to tailor their program to their area of interest.

Applicants must have a background in project management, including industry experience. However, requirements can be waived for those with a degree in a relevant field, such as business administration or engineering.

  • MBA
  • MS in Project Management

The University of Mary offers an online master's degree in project management that incorporates Christian, Catholic and Benedictine values. Courses address key topics in project management, including project initiation, project planning, project execution and control, legal issues and group dynamics. Students will also gain the communication, team-building and leadership skills critical to management careers across a variety of industries.

Students have access to academic advisors and career counselors to assist them with transfer credits, their studies and their plans post-graduation. The online course format supports collaboration amongst students, with group projects, discussion forums and frequent interactions through which students can find support and build a professional network.

  • MBA in Accountancy
  • MBA in Energy Management
  • MBA in Executive Track

For those interested in project management, Golden Gate University offers two online programs. Distance learners can choose a project management-specific master's degree or pursue a PM concentration within an MBA program. Instructors who teach Golden Gate University's online PM courses have earned the Project Management Professional (PMP) designation, ensuring that they are qualified to prepare students for careers in the field. Curricula cover both domestic and international techniques as well as communication skills so that graduates can effectively work with diverse communities within an organization and around the world.

  • MBA
  • Professional MBA
  • MBA (Finance)

Students interested in developing or enhancing their project management skills can enroll in Dallas Baptist University's online MBA with a project management concentration. This distance learning program emphasizes risk management, budgeting, project execution, and project termination and close-out. At the end of the program, students will need to apply the knowledge and skills they have learned and manage a project on their own from start to finish. Students must attend scheduled classes and submit assignments according to a specified timeline, as courses associated with this program are not self-paced.

  • MBA in Finance
  • MBA in Health Care Management
  • MBA in International Business

Western Carolina University was the first institution to offer an accredited master's program in project management. Now fully-online, the program is designed for professionals who wish to further their credentials while continuing to work. Most students entering the program have at least two to three years of experience working in projects and project management; the program director will, however, evaluate applications from students without experience, and may offer admission with the completion of prerequisite courses.

The program includes the fundamentals of project management throughout the life cycle of a project, from selection and initiation, to planning and implementation to execution and closeout. A final course addresses advanced project management practices such a Project Management Office and portfolios.

  • Master of Project Management

Designed for adult learners with managerial experience, Granite State College's online Master of Science in Project Management (MSPM) is offered on a part-time and a full-time basis. Fully online, it takes approximately six weeks for full-time students to graduate. The curriculum is comprised of lectures, seminars, and textbook materials. Students will take a series of advanced courses to gain mastery of the entire PM cycle, including how to manage changes, resources, costs, timeline, workflow, and communication. All knowledge can be applied to real world settings immediately after graduation and students will be qualified to sit for the Project Management Professional certification.

  • MS in Project Management

Brandeis University's online master's degree in project and program management teaches working professionals how to effectively build and manage budgets, communicate organizational goals, and oversee diverse projects. The program consists of 10 courses, all of which are 10 weeks long and have three starting dates throughout the academic year. Curriculum combines business functions, corporate operation challenges, management, leadership, and technology. Class sizes are generally kept to 20 or fewer students and courses are administered via LATTE, a technology platform. Online learners are expected to submit weekly discussion responses, communicate with their instructors and classmates, and complete and submit assignments. Interactions with instructors and classmates make up 30 percent of students' overall course scores.

  • MS in Project and Program Management

A fully online program, the M.S. in Project Management at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University is designed to prepare adults to work as PMs at departmental and divisional levels. The program is registered with the Project Management Institute (PMI) and takes approximately nine weeks to complete. It emphasizes a practical education, one that can be applied to a variety of industries and business needs. Additionally, all online professors have Project Management Professional (PMP) certification, which further ensures that students will receive high quality and relevant education. At the end of the program, students demonstrate their mastery of PM techniques and principles through a capstone project, which can also be used in their portfolio post graduation.

  • MS in Project Management

Administered through the GW School of Business, the online Master of Science in project management degree teaches advanced micro and macro techniques in project management, including coordinating and motivating teams, overseeing complex projects, and staying within budget. The GW program is one of the oldest project management-specific graduate degrees in the world and is taught by quality faculty who have experience in a range of fields such as astrophysics, IT, and engineering. In addition to foundational knowledge, students also explore international methodologies, advanced project management applications, and decision sciences. The university also boasts that it has strong a reputation in government and industry, which means online students will receive a high quality, relevant education as well as have unique opportunities for networking.

  • MS in Project Management

Penn State University offers an online master's in project management program through its World Campus. The 30-credit program can be completed in two years. Students will learn both American and European models of project management and can specialize their degree to meet professional goals with six credits of electives.

Possible areas of specialization include enterprise architecture, supply chain management and enterprise resource planning. Students can also complete an independent study project related to project management issues within their workplace. After completing the first four courses of the program, students will earn a Graduate Certificate in Project Management, allowing them to build their resumes and advance their careers while continuing to pursue their degree.

  • MBA
  • Master of Project Management
  • Master of Professional Studies in Organization Development and Change

Amberton University, a Christian college, offers degree programs that fit the needs of working adult learners. The university's MBA in Project Management is an online graduate degree that focuses specifically on advanced project management techniques, in addition to fundamental management principles. Distance students will learn how to effectively design, plan, execute, control, and complete complex organizational projects using various tools, techniques, and processes. Students also learn how to think critically about project schedules, costs, and quality, and how to apply risk management processes. Upon graduation, students will have the necessary skills to fill project management and leadership roles in a range of organizations.

  • MBA in Project Management

The Master of Business Administration Project Management degree at Florida Tech University is a 100 percent online program that can be earned in two years or less. Taking a more hands-on practical approach, this degree option teaches critical business concepts, from statistics to marketing, to help students become successful project managers and leaders. Online learners will engage in rigorous case study analyses for valuable insights into real world situations and challenges and will also be given opportunities to exercise leadership and teamwork skills. Finally, learners also develop specialized skills in time, cost, and quality management. Graduates will walk away with advanced skills and knowledge that can be applied to a variety of work settings immediately.

  • MBA
  • MBA in Project Management
  • MS in Project Management

Saint Mary's University of Minnesota offers an online master's degree that focuses on the principles and best practices of project management and leadership. The program takes 28 months on average to complete. Most participants are working professionals and practicing project managers or middle managers.

Students will learn to approach projects from a leadership perspective and use a variety of industry tools and techniques for effective project management. The program also centers on working with diverse groups and populations, and incorporating an ethical perspective in all decisions and communications at the workplace. Additionally, students can choose to include electives on international management. A capstone project is required at the program's close.

  • MS in Project Management

A Look inside the Project Management Master’s Degree Online Program

Before we look specifically at the online master’s in project management, let’s take a quick look at online degree programs in general. Once considered an unusual way to earn a degree, online programs are now a mainstream education option. In addition to dedicated online schools, many traditional colleges and universities – from local community colleges to top-tier institutions like Penn State and Boston University –offer distance education options.

Online curriculum is typically just as rigorous as on-campus learning. Today’s online degree programs are generally led by experienced instructors and have specific requirements and due dates. These programs may run on a synchronous or asynchronous schedule. A synchronous schedule requires all students to be online at a designated time to participate in group activities. Asynchronous programs let students log in at their own chosen time to review course material and complete assignments.

In addition to those basics, there are other considerations specific to the online master’s in project management. Here are a few things to keep in mind while evaluating your degree options.


Online project management master’s degrees can be accredited through a regional accrediting body, but students may also want to look for schools that have received specialized accreditation. For example, the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business and the Accreditation Council for Business Schools and Programs may both accredit project management programs. In addition, the PMI Global Accreditation Center for Project Management Education Programs offers accreditation for both online and on-campus programs. Currently, 30 schools have online post-graduate programs accredited by the center.

Certification Preparedness

Although voluntary, professional certifications may lead to higher salaries and more employment opportunities. The most common certifications are offered through PMI and The American Academy of Project Management. Students interested in pursuing certification should ensure that their degree program meets the requirements of the certifying agency.

Elective Course Options

The online master’s in project management provides skills that can be used across a variety of industries. However, students planning to work in a particular sector should look for a school offering electives pertaining to their career goals. Common elective options include enterprise architecture, supply chain management, operations and distribution.

Other Project Management Education Options

In addition to an online project management master’s degree, students may also want to explore the following programs to determine if one might be better suited to their career goals. A department representative or admissions counselor can help weigh the pros and cons of each option compared to a master’s in project management.

  • Master of Business Administration (MBA) in Project Management
  • Master of Science in Management with a Project Management Concentration
  • Master of Professional Studies in Supply Chain Management
  • Graduate Certificate in Project Management

Students may also want to ask schools for information regarding retention and graduation rates, as well as data on alumni positions and credentials. Now, let’s look at the type of courses you can expect to take as part of an online project management master’s degree program.

Curriculum for the Master’s in Project Management Online

The curriculum for a project management master’s degree online will depend on the college and university. Most programs require 30-48 credits for graduation and can be completed in about two years. The majority of credits will consist of core classes, with the remaining credits filled by electives.

For example, the Penn State online master’s in project management has 24 credits of core class requirements and six credits of electives. Core classes typically focus on the skills needed to successfully plan and execute a large-scale project. Students can use the elective credits to specialize their studies on a particular topic within the field of project management.

While traditional degree concentrations are not often found in project management programs, a few schools do offer them. Northeastern University, for instance, offers concentrations that prepare students to work in a particular field such as construction, information security or clinical trials. Here is a sampling of courses currently offered in some project management graduate degree programs:

Project Management

Required by graduate programs, this foundational course reviews the fundamentals of project management. Often using a problems-based approach, students will review planning and control methods, value management systems and software applications.

Planning and Resource Management

As a core curriculum class, this course goes deeper into the planning phase of project management. Students will also learn how to identify, acquire and manage necessary resources.

Project Management Leadership

This course teaches the interpersonal and organizational skills needed to successfully lead a team. Topics include effective communications, team motivation, and business and personal ethics. In addition, students will learn strategies for encouraging greater productivity and cooperation among team members.

Project Cost and Schedule Control

In this core course, students will learn how to use project management tools to create a realistic timeline for completion and how to deploy cost-control measures. Topics of study include cost estimation methods, contingency plan development and resource management plans. Students will also learn to identify and control scope creep, when to revise budgets and how to conduct a break-even analysis.

Project Risk Management

Typically required as a core curriculum class, Project Risk Management teaches students how to assess and manage a range of project risks. Students are taught how to anticipate potential risks, minimize their likelihood and respond appropriately.

Managing Troubled Projects

Managing Troubled Projects teaches students how to intervene when a project is at risk of failing. The course covers how to assess a project, create a recovery plan, and when to shut down a project in the event of a failed plan.

Leading Remote Project Teams

With modern communication method, project teams no longer must be located in one place. This class helps students effectively manage remote team members. In addition to creating a cohesive team, students will learn how to address and adjust to cultural differences.

Enterprise Architecture Foundations

Offered as an elective, this course provides a fundamental overview of how organizations are structured. Students will learn to develop and manage businesses in a way that will optimize their chances for success.

Purchasing and Materials Management

Another elective, purchasing and materials management covers topics such as how to create purchasing policies, select suppliers and negotiate purchase agreements. This course may be particularly beneficial to students hoping to work in supply chain management or logistics.

Schedule for the Online Master’s in Project Management

How long will it take to complete the classes required for an online master’s in project management? The answer depends on the school and whether you plan to study full-time or part-time. At some schools, a full-time student can earn their master’s in project management in as little as one year. Part-time students may need two years.

Online students who are juggling work and family obligations may prefer to take two years to earn their degree. Below is an example of what you might expect from a degree program on a two-year schedule.

Year 0

Before taking your first class, you should spend some time researching your options to ensure that you select the best master’s degree program for your career goals. Allow plenty of time to complete the application process, which can run from weeks to months depending on the school and the competitiveness of its program. Here are a few steps to take while preparing for your graduate program.

Take stock of your career goals and schedule availability. Do you want to work in a specific project management area, such as supply chain management or IT security? If so, make sure your selected school has courses available in those areas. Also, find out whether a program is synchronous or asynchronous. If the degree has synchronous elements, confirm that you will be able to log in at the required times.

Make sure your computer or devices can run any required applications or software. If you will need any specific programs that you don’t already own, find out if the school will provide it or if you’ll have to purchase it.

Application deadlines are critical to getting into your preferred program. Add all deadlines to your calendar, with reminders at least a week in advance.

Take the GMAT. Some schools require this admissions test, while others may accept the GRE. If you’re applying to a school that requires the GMAT, take the test early enough that you can retake it if your initial score isn’t as high as you’d like.

If you need financial aid, complete the FAFSA for federal programs, and talk to college financial aid departments about any available assistance. Also explore private scholarship and grant options. Confirm that your application is complete. Look for a checklist from each school and make sure every element is included in your submission. Many online project management master’s programs require the following:

  • Application form
  • Transcript from your undergraduate degree
  • Personal statement and/or resume
  • Letters of recommendation
  • GMAT score

Look for acceptance letters to arrive and notify schools of your decision. You’re ready to move on to the first year of your online master’s in project management!

Year 1

During the first year of studies, you will likely complete foundational courses such as Project Management, Project Risk Management and Planning and Resource Management. You will probably also finish one or two of your elective courses during this first year. The number of classes and the ratio of core to elective courses will depend on the school’s curriculum requirements and whether the program runs on a semester or quarter schedule.

Year 2

During the second year of your master’s in project management online program, you’ll finish your core classes and select your final electives. In addition, many schools have a capstone requirement that must be completed during the second year. The capstone is a final project in which the student demonstrates real-world proficiency in project management skills. You may be able to design and undertake a project at your current place of business, or schools may place you in an internship at a local business.

Project Management from an Insider's Perspective

David Charles studied computer science as an undergrad and worked as a network administrator for six years before earning his master’s in project management online in 2013. He is now a project manager for a software company and oversees requirements gathering and implementation on contracts up to $250k. As a project manager for a small tech start-up, he faces a different set of challenges than project managers that would be joining more established organizations. Based on his experiences, he suggests that project management students focus on these three areas during their schooling and into their career:


“Communication is 90 percent of what I do as a project manager. In my company, I take requirements provided by our clients and interpret and translate those into actionable tasks for my implementation team. Being able to communicate quickly and effectively with a variety of audiences is vital in this environment. Despite the need to move quickly, I try to take the time to read emails to our clients from their perspective. In doing this, I will often reword or even scrap entire messages in order to prevent damaging the relationship with a carelessly worded message. Conversely, with my team, I need to be able to accurately communicate the requirements of projects quickly. Don’t be afraid to go over things that you assume your team knows. It’s much better to take a little extra time at the beginning of a project to get it right than to discover an issue later on.”


“Motivating your team is one of the trickier aspects of project management. There’s no one-size-fits-all approach, as every person is motivated by different things. It’s important to learn what motivates your team members, whether it be money, vacation time, etc., and use that to incentivize them. You won’t often have direct control over company controlled incentives, but it’s important to manage upwards when possible and push for changes to ultimately make your team as happy as they can be. Beyond official incentives, try to foster an environment that people want to work in. Be the boss you would want to work for.”

Use resources as effectively as possible.

“The goal of successful projects is to typically complete the tasks in the shortest amount of time while expending the least amount of resources to do so. At its core, this is what project management is. On my team, each member has individual strengths and weaknesses that need to be exploited and protected respectively. Studying ‘Critical Chain’ and ‘Theory of Constraints’ methodology by Eliyahu Goldratt is valuable for any project manager.”

Is an Online Master’s in Project Management worth the Investment?

Earning an online project management master’s degree can provide valuable skills that can be used in jobs across a variety of industries. However, does it really pay off to spend time and money earning this degree? First, let’s look at how much you can expect to pay for the degree and then consider the potential return in terms of income and employability.

Tuition Costs for a Master’s Degree in Project Management

Within the same school, tuition costs for an online master’s program are generally similar to a traditional on-campus program. However, tuition costs are calculated differently from school to school. Let’s look at a couple of examples.

To earn an online master’s in project management on the Penn State Global Campus, you’ll spend $930 per credit for a total cost of $27,900 to complete the 30 credits required. Northeastern University charges significantly less per credit, $594 in 2014-2015, but requires 45 credits for graduation. That puts the expected tuition for their project management master’s degree at $26,730. Meanwhile, at the University of Wisconsin-Platteville, online courses cost only $370 per credit, making a 30-credit master’s degree a relative bargain at $11,100.

These rates are subject to change, and the posted tuition rate is not necessarily the final price. Many schools offer financial aid that can significantly reduce the out-of-pocket costs for project management students. Others may let graduate students serve as teaching assistants, which pays a stipend large enough to offset most tuition costs.

While tuition is typically the largest cost incurred in a graduate program, it is not the only expense. Students may also have to pay for room and board or commuting costs if they are enrolling in a campus program. Those with families may have to cover child care costs as well. Online students can avoid many of these extra expenses, as they are able to study from home, often on their own schedule.

The Potential Payoff

To determine whether spending nearly $28,000 for a graduate degree is a wise investment, you need to evaluate how it can impact employability and income. Industry trends show that project managers are in high demand. PMI estimates 1.57 million new project management positions will be created globally each year between now and 2020. In July 2013, according to Wanted Analytics, project manager jobs topped the list of open positions in healthcare IT. More recently, Computerworld’s 2015 Forecast survey found project management to be the second most in-demand skill, with 35 percent of IT executives planning to hire for this skill in the next 12 months.

While some of these positions may be open to those with only a bachelor’s degree, other employers may be seeking professionals with the deeper knowledge imparted by a master’s in project administration.

For qualified graduates, the financial rewards can be great. The Eighth Edition of the PMI Project Management Salary Survey, based on 2013 data, found the median salary for U.S.-based project managers to be $108,000. Looking back to 2011, PMI reported that those with a Project Management Professional certification earned an average of $14,500 more than their non-certified counterparts.

The Bureau of Labor Statistics, which collects and publishes national employment data, doesn’t track project managers as a separate occupation. Instead, the Bureau includes project managers under the larger umbrella of managers within their industry.

To get a better idea of how project managers are compensated in specific industries, here’s a look at BLS data for different sectors. As of 2013, here’s how salaries stacked up for computer and information systems managers.

Top 10 % $156,560
Median (50%) $123,950
Bottom 10% $76,420

Income for construction managers broke down as follows in 2013, according to the BLS.

Top 10 % $146,340
Median (50%) $84,410
Bottom 10% $50,220

Finally, here’s a look at 2013 salaries for industrial production managers, who typically work in the manufacturing sector.

Top 10 % $152,590
Median (50%) $90,790
Bottom 10% $55,250

With salary potential for many project managers nearing or exceeding triple digits, it’s easy to see how an online master’s in project management can have an excellent ROI.

Global Demand for Project Managers

Project management isn’t only in demand in the U.S. – it’s sought after by companies around the world. The chart below highlights the 10 countries in which project managers and practitioners are most highly compensated.

Country Median Annual Salary (USD)
Australia $134,658
Switzerland $133,605
United States $108,000
The Netherlands $103,274
Germany $101,983
Canada $95,140
New Zealand $93,513
Belgium $92,817
Sweden $90,690
United Kingdom $90,666

In addition to the countries listed above, the PMI expects the following areas to be hot spots for project management positions in the years to come.

  • Brazil: More than 1.3 million project management roles are expected to be needed by 2020 as the country implements its 10-year energy plan.
  • India: PMI is anticipating that nearly 9 million new project management will be created by 2020, as the Delhi-Mumbai industrial corridor is being developed.
  • China: As home to the world’s largest high-speed rail system, China may need to fill as many as 25 million project management roles as it maintains and expands its rails.
  • Japan: Japan is also in need of project management professionals; the PMI Project Management Talent Gap Report projects the creation of 2.6 new management roles by 2020.

Common Job Titles for Project Management Professionals

Some professionals may work as project managers, but under different job titles. Although they are all completing essentially the same tasks – the development and implementation of organizational initiatives – the details may vary depending on industry and expertise. Here are a few of the job titles often occupied by graduates of an online project management master’s program:

Project Leader

This title is sometimes used for junior managers working under a more senior professional. Rather than overseeing an entire large-scale project, the project leader may be responsible for leading a team to implement one component.

IT Project Manager

This position may be best suited for those with a technical background, such as an undergraduate degree in information systems, computer science or a related field. IT project managers may oversee the creation of new software, the deployment of applications or the development of systems to support organizational goals.

Logistics Management Analyst

Most professionals working under this type of title have expertise in logistics, transportation and supply chain management. They may be responsible for planning purchases, scheduling shipments and troubleshooting inefficiencies.

Procurement Planner

This occupation is focused on a specific area of project management. Procurement planners often must identify where to locate necessary resources and then negotiate favorable terms for purchase and delivery.

Unexpected Occupations for Project Management Graduates

An online master’s in project management can lead to jobs outside the normal realm of employment in the field. The skills taught in a project management program can transfer to a number of other occupations in the business, technology and logistics sectors. Read on for three examples.

  • Top Executives

    Chief Technology Officers and Chief Information Officers are often project managers at heart. A CIO needs to know how to effectively manage a firm’s infrastructure, which includes overseeing projects related to the alignment of technology to business goals. On the technology side, a CTO is responsible for high-level project management, coordinating with vendors and internal departments to create an IT architecture that meets organizational needs.

  • Management Analysts

    At some companies, a management analyst may oversee business operations and make recommendations for more efficient processes. The Bureau of Labor Statistics notes that many firms prefer to hire analysts with master’s degrees. Those with a project management degree and background may add value by improving project implementation and operations.

  • Speakers and Authors

    Some project managers choose to forego traditional employment. Instead of working for a single firm, these individuals may work as independent contractors and provide consulting services to multiple businesses. They may also run workshops, write books and speak on project management topics. Scott Berkun, Juana Clark Craig and Gregory Horine are a few of the professionals who have added writing and speaking to their resume.